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  1. History of journalism in the United Kingdom
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  3. National and Transnational News Distribution – — EGO

Huntington Library Quarterly , Huntington Library Quarterly 67 : Review of English Studies Huntington Library Quarterly 62 : Media History 5 : English Literary Renaissance I would welcome enquiries from potential doctoral students, including non-anglophone students, interested in any of the areas of my research. I am also happy to discuss partially-developed ideas with a view to finding a focus or a persuasive outline for a research proposal. You can read about some of my media and public appearances here.

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School of English and Drama. School of English and Drama School home. People PhD Profiles. Professor Joad Raymond. Publications Books in progress and under contract ed. In progress. Edited books ed. PhD Supervision I would welcome enquiries from potential doctoral students, including non-anglophone students, interested in any of the areas of my research. From until was the 'golden age' of newspaper publication, with technical advances in printing and communication combined with a professionalisation of journalism and the prominence of new owners.

A pioneer of popular journalism for the masses had been the Chartist Northern Star , first published on 26 May The same time saw the first cheap newspaper in the Daily Telegraph and Courier , later to be known simply as the Daily Telegraph. The Illustrated London News , founded in , was the world's first illustrated weekly newspaper. Reformers pressured the government and it repeatedly cut the high taxes on knowledge, including the excise duty on paper and the 5-penny stamp tax on each copy printed of a newspapers, pamphlet, advertisements and almanacs.

History of journalism in the United Kingdom

The war with France was under way and the government wanted to suppress negative rumours and damaging information, so it tightened censorship and raised taxes so that few people could afford to buy a copy. In and the tax on newspapers was increased to three pence and then four pence. This was more than the average daily pay of the working man. However, coffeehouses typically purchased one or two copies that were handed around. In the s hundreds of illegal untaxed newspapers circulated.

The political tone of most of them was fiercely revolutionary. Their publishers were prosecuted but this failed to get rid of them. It was chiefly Milner Gibson and Richard Cobden who advocated the case in parliament to first reduce in and in totally repeal of the tax on newspapers.


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After the reduction of the stamp tax in from four pence to one penny, the circulation of English newspapers rose from 39,, to ,, by ; [23] a trend further exacerbated by technological improvements in transportation and communication combined with growing literacy. By all taxes had ended, making cheap publications reaching a large market feasible. For the first time it was financially attractive to plan for much larger circulations and therefore to invest in the new technologies which had been impractical before.

Freedom from most taxes in the s encouraged the launching of such titles. The Daily Telegraph, which appeared on 29 June and soon sold for 1 d. Sixteen new major provincials papers were founded, and older titles enlarge their scope. The Manchester Guardian, started out as a weekly in , became a daily of , as did the Liverpool Post and the Scotsman. The Times , edited by John Thadeus Delane stood preeminent.

The new technology, especially the rotary press , allowed printing of tens of thousands of copies a day at low cost.

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The price of paper fell and huge rolls 3 miles in length of paper made from cheap wood pulp instead of expensive rags were fitted onto the Hoe rotary press. The linotype machine appeared in the s and sped up typesetting and lowered its cost. The electoral franchise was expanded from one or two percent of the men to a majority, and newspapers became the primary means of political education.

Sensationalism, emphasizing dramatic stories, large headlines, and an emotional writing style was introduced by W. Stead , the editor of The Pall Mall Gazette The New Journalism reached out not to the elite but to a popular audience. Stead became assistant editor of the liberal The Pall Mall Gazette in where he set about revolutionising a traditionally conservative newspaper "written by gentlemen for gentlemen.

He made a feature of the Pall Mall extras, and his enterprise and originality exercised a potent influence on contemporary journalism and politics. He also introduced the interview, creating a new dimension in British journalism when he interviewed General Gordon in Matthew Arnold, the leading critic of the day, declared in that the New Journalism, "is full of ability, novelty, variety, sensation, sympathy, generous instincts.

Bringing all the factors together, a decisive transformation away from a high cost, low circulation elite newspaper world in the s was the brainchild of Alfred Harmsworth He realized that the money was to be made from not the cover price, which should be lowered to a halfpenny, but from advertisements. The advertisers wanted more and more readers--millions if possible--because they wanted to reach not only the entire middle class, but many well-paid members of the working-class. Harmsworth combined all the new technical innovations, with sensationalism, and a fixed goal of maximizing profits.

Working with journalist Kennedy Jones , Harmsworth set up the Evening News in , and in launched the morning paper, the Daily Mail. Harmsworth scored an immediate triumph. The first year daily sales averaged ,, and in three years it sold a half-million copies a day. The prestige press did not try to catch up, for they measured success not by sales or profits but on prestige and power they wielded by dominating the news needs of the upper class British elite.

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It spoke for reform. Due to Barnes's influential support for Catholic Emancipation in Ireland, his colleague Lord Lyndhurst described him as "the most powerful man in the country". It was also the first properly national newspaper, using the new steam trains to deliver copies to the rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations across the UK.

This helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence. The Times originated the practice for newspapers to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. Russell , the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War of , wrote immensely influential dispatches; for the first time the public could read about the reality of warfare. In particular, on September 20, , Russell wrote a missive about one battle that highlighted the surgeons' "humane barbarity" and the lack of ambulance care for wounded troops.

Shocked and outraged, the public reacted in a backlash that led to major reforms. The Times became famous for its influential leaders editorials. For example, Robert Lowe wrote them between and on a wide range of economic topics such as free trade which he favoured. In , historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite:. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in by a group of non-conformist businessmen.

Its most famous editor, Charles Prestwich Scott , made the Guardian into a world-famous newspaper in the s. The Daily Telegraph was first published on June 29, and was owned by Arthur Sleigh, who transferred it to Joseph Levy the following year. Levy produced it as the first penny newspaper in London. His son, Edward Lawson soon became editor, a post he held until The Daily Telegraph became the organ of the middle class and could claim the largest circulation in the world in It held a consistent Liberal Party allegiance until opposing Gladstone 's foreign policy in when it turned Unionist.

By popular journalism aimed at the largest possible audience working class had proven a success.

National and Transnational News Distribution – — EGO

Catterall and Colin Seymour-Ure conclude that:. Socialist and labour newspapers also proliferated and in the Daily Herald was launched as the first daily newspaper of the trade union and labour movement. Newspapers reached their peak of importance during the First World War, in part because wartime issues were so urgent and newsworthy, while members of Parliament were constrained by the all-party coalition government from attacking the government.

By Northcliffe controlled 40 per cent of the morning newspaper circulation in Britain, 45 per cent of the evening and 15 per cent of the Sunday circulation. Lord Beaverbrook said he was, "the greatest figure who ever strode down Fleet Street. Taylor , however, says, "Northcliffe could destroy when he used the news properly.

He could not step into the vacant place. He aspired to power instead of influence, and as a result forfeited both. Other powerful editors included C. Journalism expert Adrian Bingham argues that newspaper journalists are held in low repute. He cites one poll that found the trustworthiness of journalists on The Sun, Mirror and Daily Star fell far below government ministers and estate agents. Bingham list some popular complaints, but dismisses them as an inevitable long-term characteristic of the media:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: The Times. Martin and David A. Copeland, eds. Keeble, ed. Retrieved Elliott, "The Early Scots Magazine. Retrieved 1 October August 13, The A to Z of Journalism. Scarecrow Press. Retrieved 2 June Dagnall, "The taxes on knowledge: excise duty on paper. Newspapers, Politics and English Society. Thomas, "John Wilkes and the Freedom of the Press British Newspapers: A History and Guide.

Ensor, England, pp. Stead by W.


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Sydney Robinson". Mail Online. Retrieved 4 November Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved 7 May Kent State U. Pulling Newspapers Apart. Taylor, English History p Taylor, English History pp Categories : History of journalism by country History of the United Kingdom by topic.